Karl Marx, Marxism and Association with Brief Biography

Karl Marx, Marxism and Association with Brief Biography


It is necessary for anyone who believes in Marxism to read, know and understand the life story of Karl Marx, the pioneer of the entire exploited and oppressed human community, including the world proletariat.

How did Marx move forward in a revolutionary direction in his life, how did he articulate the proletarian outlook, what was his role in the establishment and development of the Communist League and the First International, what were his sufferings in life, what was his family life and his friendship with the great Engels and What a saga of creative support and his great unforgettable and inspiring source. Marx’s greatness is indeed his steadfast pursuit of his goal in the midst of adversity and disruption.

The philosophy formulated by these great Marxists is called Marxist philosophy. Lenin described this philosophy as “the pinnacle of world ideological thought, the legal successor to German philosophy in the nineteenth century, British political economy, and the greatest creation of French socialism.” And, what you have made clear is that Marx’s theory is omnipotent because it is true. It’s complete and coherent, it gives people a relevant ideology. “

Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818, to a lawyer family in Trier, Prussia, Germany. His father was Henry Marcus and his mother was Henrietta Marcus (Holland). He had four brothers and five sisters in his family. Marcus was the son of Myla.

Marx was married to Jenny Bestfalen on June 19, 1843, in the small German town of Christchurch. Marx’s children were four daughters (Jenny, Laura, Francisca, Eleanor and two sons (Edgar and Gido)

). From an early age, he was endowed with a keen intellect and high moral values. He was of the opinion that ego, ambition, and greed should not be allowed to play a role in choosing a way of life. only purpose in life was to serve the human race. In

Marx’s October 1835, he was admitted to the Law Department of the University.

After studying for a year in Bonn, Marx moved to the University of Berlin The school had more facilities for scientific study and intellectual development.

At the Beginning of the Revolutionary Life,

when Marx’s vision was being formed, great historical events were also maturing. As the invention of the steam engine in the late eighteenth century revolutionized the British economy, as the revolution spread across the European continent, so did the opposition to the feudal remnants of many European countries. The development of large-scale capitalist industry led to the bankruptcy of the peasants and artisans, their deprivation of all means of production and their exploitation into wage labor.

The establishment of the capitalist system in European countries intensified the class struggle, bourgeoisie and national liberation movements began to grow, the proletariat appeared on the world historical stage. But the opposition to the capitalist system had not yet taken a well-organized and conscious form. In 1831 and 1834 a revolt broke out in Lyon, France’s largest industrial center. In the first half of the fourth decade, Charterism, the first major revolutionary political movement of the working class in Britain, emerged.

In a backward, economically and politically fragmented Germany, where the working people were dragged under the yoke of double exploitation, that is, the remnants of feudalism and neo-capitalism, the bourgeois-democratic revolution was maturing. There, at the end of the fourth decade and the beginning of the fifth decade, the dissatisfaction of the masses culminated, the labor movement was born, and various antigovernmental political currents began to emerge among the bourgeoisie and intellectuals.

Opposition elements, who did not dare to come openly in the political arena, formed various literary and philosophical factions. The so-called young Hegelians, the left-wing followers of Hegel, formed a similar faction, and Marx came close to it.

For Marx, Organized Worldview in the Struggle Against the Young

Who began to form a well-Hegelian sects, the fascination with Hegelian philosophy was no accident. The greatest gift of this greatest representative of German classical philosophy was that he viewed all the events of the world with a dialectical mercury. He studied any event in the process of its origin, development and end.

Using this progressive method, Hegel sought to explore the internal regularity of natural and social development, the struggle for internal conflicts that formed the basis of development. But Hegel could not solve this problem, because there was a big flaw in his philosophy, which was spiritualism. Unlike materialist philosophers who viewed nature as materially independent of human consciousness and the beginning of all things, Hegel considered spiritual development, the ultimate, to be the basis of natural and social development. Hegel’s ‘supremacy’, which appears as the creator of nature and society, was ultimately nothing but theism enclosed in a philosophical shell. Thus the grand edifice of Hegelian philosophy stood on a swaying foundation.

Hegel’s spiritualist philosophy also influenced his dialectical creature. As Marx later wrote, Hegel’s dialectics stood on its head. In order to turn this method into a real scientific method of world experience, this philosophy had to be upheld. As a result of his conservative social and political views, Hegel did not fully follow the dialectical system. This method was used only in the assessment of the past, but not in the study of the present and the future.

The Study of Doctoral

Dissertation mainly ancient philosophy during this period. He was preparing a doctoral dissertation on “Democrats’ Nature Philosophy and Epicur’s Nature Philosophy.” This was Marx’s first scientific work, and his ideology was even more spiritual. But he had shown considerable freedom in Hegel’s thinking. Hegel had a negative view of the realist Epicurus, but Marx praised the ancient Greek philosopher’s courageous struggle against religion and superstition.

Marx fought hard against the attempt to subjugate science to religion, to control independent human thought. He revered the mythical god Prometheus for his glorious and selfless struggle for the happiness of mankind. Marx wrote – I really hate all gods, but in Marx’s words “the struggle against all the gods of heaven and hell is the highest ideal of progressive philosophy.”

Fighting against all the gods of the heavens and the earth, Marx appeared not only as a warrior atheist but also as a brave warrior against a revolutionary, so-called Christian state, the Proisen Absolute Monarchy. Max had seen that there could be no real evaluation of his thesis at a university in the Proisen capital. He therefore sent his thesis to the University of Iyengar and in April 1941 received his doctorate in philosophy.

Marx intended to engage in scientific research. He wanted to be a professor at Bonn University. The Prussian government, however, adopted a reactionary policy and expelled progressive professors from universities. Marx concluded that there was no place for progressive scientific thought in Prussian universities.

Instead of being an editor, Rhine magazine

university class became a platform for Max to fight against Germans and reactionaries. From the spring of 1842 he began working at the Rheinische Zeitung, and in mid-October of that year he became its editor. The magazine was published by the anti-Rhine bourgeoisie, dissatisfied with the reactionary Prison system. As an activist and editor of the magazine, Marx showed unparalleled talent in literature and journalism. He was a great organizer and had amazing performance. Under his leadership, the magazine began to take on a definite revolutionary democratic form.

Through this magazine, Marx tried to answer such questions, which had reached a critical stage in the growing revolutionary situation in Germany. The lack of freedom of the press and the reactionary censorship that were strictly enforced in the prosecution at that time were similar questions. The article, which appeared to be Marx’s first attempt at journalism, was based on the latest Prison Censorship Law. Written in early 1843, it could not have been published in Germany under strict censorship, so it could only be published in a collection published by the young Hegelian in 1843.

Marx’s first article, published in the Rheinsiche Zeitung, was about freedom of the press. Opposing reactionary censorship, Marx said that newspapers should be the intellectual mirror of the people, a reflection of their needs and aspirations. He vehemently opposed the tendency to make journalism a lucrative business and a means of livelihood. Writers have to earn to have the chance to live and write, but never to live and write to earn. ” In the early days of his literary career, Marx expressed his views on the great role of journalism and the glorious profession of the writer in a very concise and clear manner.

Despite various obstacles from government censorship and the bourgeois shareholders of the magazine, Marx continued to struggle through his magazine against the economic, political and intellectual oppression that spread throughout Germany.

As a true revolutionary democrat, Marx raised his voice for the burning issues of the people.

His acquaintance with real life, the workers, and his disenfranchisement forced Marx to rethink the political system in Germany at the time. Marx came to the conclusion that the Prussian government and its employees were working for the privileged classes, not for the benefit of the people, and that the priests were working for the tax elite. Thus Marx took a step towards discovering the real role of the state in class society. Marx’s writings in Rheinsiche Zeitung were the first step towards a materialist understanding of history.

To continue his work as an editor, Marx needed great courage, patience and determination. Although the Napoleonic Act was still in force in the Rhineland and there was more freedom of the press here than in other parts of Proisen, Marx was forced to struggle daily with censors, government officials and magazine shareholders.

Frightened by the trend of the Rheinsiche Zeitung and the growing influence of the magazine, the Proisen government began to keep a close watch on the magazine, and finally issued an order to close the magazine on 19 January 1843, with effect from 1 April 1843. On March 17, 1843, Marx resigned from the magazine’s editorial board, expressing his disagreement with the shareholders’ tendency to make the magazine more liberal.

Marx’s work was marked by direct contact with the real life situation of the German workers, the beginning of the proletarian movement in France and Britain, and the study of socialist literature. In Lenin’s words, from this time on, Marx has shifted from spiritualism to materialism, from revolutionary democracy to communism. “

Following the closure of Rheinsiche Zeitung, Marx decided to leave Germany. In Germany he could do any work in the field of scientific work and journalism. But this decision did not mean that Marx had given up the path of political struggle. A person who believes that inactivity is the most heinous human weakness can never surrender. Marx was planning to publish a revolutionary magazine that could be secretly sent to Germany.

Criticism of Hegel’s Legal Philosophy The Law

scientific solution to the problem raised by Marx could not be found without reviewing Hegel’s spiritualist ideology about the state and. Ludwig Firewall was the first philosopher to oppose Hegel’s spiritualist philosophy. His book The Essence of Christianity (1841) greatly influenced Marx and attracted him to materialism. But Firewall only had a materialistic view of natural phenomena.

He was a spiritualist in his thinking on history, social relations and politics. In addition to greatly appreciating Firewall’s works, Marx also discovered the limitations and inconsistencies in his materialism. Unlike Firewall, Marx sought to create a well-organized, unified scientific worldview that embraces not only nature but also society.

Marx applied a materialist approach to the analysis of social events and developed a materialist worldview. Before him, the materialist approach was of a mechanical and metaphysical nature. The world was seen as something static and unchanging. Based on scientific facts, achievements in natural science, Marx began to review Hegel’s dialectics, developing materialism and dialectics as a unified, unified scientific worldview.

The manuscript of Marx’s book Critique of Hegel’s Legal Philosophy, his preparations for this work, as well as the letters he wrote during this period, show how Marx became Marx, the founder of socialism as a science. He became the founder of modern materialism, which was infinitely more substantial and incomparable than all previous forms of materialism.

Paris exile

“Deutsch-Franzoosische Jahrbucher” – (German phranseli annual magazine) to name as the magazine published out of Germany and the French pro-organ preparations to October 1843, in Marcus and his wife arrived in Paris. Settling in Paris became a source of new knowledge, new political experience in his life.

During his stay in Paris, Marx was associated with the leaders of the Justice Union and most of the leaders of the French secret labor societies, but he himself did not become a member of any such organization. He met French socialists and communists such as Louis Blanc, Etten, Cabe, Pierre Leru and Pierre Joseph Prudon. Marx had a friendly relationship with the great German poet Heinrich Heine. In Paris, Marx met with Bakunin, Botkin and other Russian political activists.

Marx was preparing to write a major economic work. He critically studied the works of the classical bourgeois political economists of Britain, Adamsmith and David Ricardo, and other economists. He began to study in Germany the works of the great fantasists, socialists, the French, Henri Seine-Simon and Charles Fourier, and the Englishman, Robert Owen, in Paris. Imaginative, socialist critics of capitalist society were very strong and appropriate. But they did not find the objective rules of social development, nor did they realize the social power capable of creating a new society.

Meeting and Befriending Frederick Engels,

determined to dedicate his life to the interests of the most progressive and the most exploited class, Marx found a very reliable ally and friend with the same ideology as Friedrich Engels.

Born in the town of Barmen in Rhineland, Engels was two years younger than Marx. His father was the owner of a garment factory. At his father’s urging, Engels began working in his shop before finishing school. After some time he began to study business in Bremen. But these very talented, insightful and courageous young men were not interested in becoming businessmen at all. After getting acquainted with the hard life of the workers and artisans, the 18-year-old Engels described it more effectively in his first article entitled Bhupertal’s Letter.

From March 1842, Engels began writing regularly as a staunch revolutionary democrat.

In November 1842, Engels went to England to work in the office of a yarn factory in Manchester. The factory was owned by Engels’ father. On the way he entered Cologne. Here he had his first brief meeting with Marx in the office of the Supreme Leader.

Reading Engels’ writings during this period and entitled “Some Drafts on the Critique of Political Economy” reveals how he came to the path of materialism and communism on the basis of his own scientific and practical experience. In these drafts, Engels began his critique of bourgeois political economy, that is, of the capitalist system from the point of view of the proletariat. Published in the German-French annual magazine, this work greatly influenced Marx. This work became a new source of inspiration for Marx’s economic research.

The economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844 were the first fruits of Marx’s research.

Correspondence between them began after Marx’s introduction to Engels’ work entitled “Some Drafts on the Critique of Political Economy.” On his return to Germany from Britain in August 1844, Engels met Marx in Paris. During our ten-day meeting, Engels later recalled, “We appeared to be in complete agreement on all theoretical areas, and our joint work began at that time.”

This historic meeting between Marx and Engels marked the beginning of an extraordinary friendship and cooperation between the two great men. This support equipped the working class with scientific revolutionary principles, laying the foundation for the strategy and tactics of the Proletarian Party.

‘The Holy Family’ Scientific world Outlook Based

in Paris after meeting Marcus and almost everything they began to work together. They began writing a joint work, which was published in February 1845. The satirical title of this work was ‘Holy Family’ or ‘Criticism of Criticism’. By making a fuss and against the friends’. Marx wrote the main body of this work and used the results of his past research.

By making Bruno believe that great men create history and criticizing the individualistic-idealistic view of his puppets, Marx and Engels put forward a key premise of historical materialism – the people are the real creators of history, not the great men. In connection with the historical development, a large number of people are becoming conscious and active activists of the historical process. Lenin attached great importance to this proposition and said that it was the most profound and most important proposition of historical materialism.

The world historical role of the proletariat in the ‘Holy Family’ and the social and economic background of this role were almost mature in the view of Marx and Engels.

This theory of the world historical role of the proletariat was the foundation on which the coherent theory of scientific communism was built. Lenin wrote, “The expression of the world historical role of the proletariat as the builder of socialist society is the main achievement of Marx’s theory.”

In the ‘Holy Family’, a new revolutionary-materialist worldview was laid the foundation of the proletarian ideology. On February 3, 1845, Marx left Paris for Brussels. Shortly thereafter, his wife, Jenny Marcus, moved to Brussels with her nine-month-old daughter, Jenny. In order to move, Marx’s wife was forced to sell all her belongings for a nominal price.

Exile in Brussels, the

Brussels Inquisition of Rosario was raised before Marx and his family. Frederick Engels wanted to help him. Gathering with friends and allies, he sent some money to Marx. His book, The State of the Working Class in the UK, should have been paid sooner rather than later. In a letter to Marx, Engels gladly promised to send him the money. This was the first vivid example of Engels’ selfless support. This support played an invaluable role in Marx’s entire life.

The Protestant government did not stop pursuing Marx even in Belgium. Marx was forced to relinquish his Prussian citizenship in December 1845 when he learned that the Prussian government was trying to deport him from Brussels.

Engels also arrived in Brussels in early April 1845. He had completed his invaluable book, The Condition of the Working Class in Britain. The book contained a wealth of concrete material and concrete conclusions drawn from the experience of the British workers’ struggle. This book corroborated Marx and Engels’ views on the world historical role of the proletariat on a solid historical basis.

Recalling his meeting with Marx in Brussels, Engels wrote, “By the time we met in Brussels in the spring of 1845, Marx had laid down the basic materialist theory of history and a detailed plan for how we would develop this new ideology.”

Firebach’s Propositions

‘Firebach’s Proposals’ According to Engels, it was the first document to mark the ‘genius early stage of a new worldview’. These propositions were written by Marx in his notebook in the spring of 1845. In 1888, Engels published these propositions.

Firebach did not know how to use materialism in social consciousness, he looked at human beings in an abstract way, separate from society and history – this is what Marx saw as his greatest weakness. In fact, Marx wrote – “The emphasis of all social relations is human.”

In his last proposition, Marx very subtly presented that his new worldview was fundamentally different, not only from Firebach’s point of view, but also from all previous philosophical ideologies. The statement said, “Philosophers have interpreted the world in different ways, but our main task is to change the world.

Travel to the United

Formulation of a new world view Marcus and solidarity in matters before July 21 to August 12, 1845, did travel to the United.

The German Ideology

main tenets of historical materialism were first presented in the’ German Ideology’. This great invention of Marx revolutionized the study of rules in philosophy, society and social development. This invention turned history into a true science. Now it was possible to study the past, understand the present and predict the future. The German ideology laid the foundation for the dialectical and historical materialism of Marxist philosophy. By linking materialism with dialectics, Marx for the first time applied it not only to the study of nature but also to the study of human society. According to Lenin, historical materialism was “the greatest achievement of scientific thought.”

Marx’s great invention, which gave a complete and complete view of the materialist worldview, played a vital role in the process of transforming socialism from fantasy to science. The Second General Convention of the Communist League, held in London in 1847, entrusted Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels with the task of drafting the Communist Manifesto. It took Marx-Engels a year to prepare the Communist Party Manifesto, and on February 12, 1848, Marx-Engels issued the Communist Manifesto from London. After that, the world proletariat received the ideological weapon of liberation in the form of Marxism, Marxist philosophy. In this regard, Marx himself has said – “Just as philosophy acquires its material weapon in the proletariat, so the proletariat acquires its intellectual weapon in philosophy.” Regarding philosophy, Marx said, “Every true philosophy is the intellectual essence of its time.”

Lenin further writes about the importance of Marxism and Marxist philosophy in relation to the proletariat as an infallible intellectual tool for correctly interpreting and changing the world. . ”

In fact, Marx’s philosophy has proved to be an effective and powerful weapon in the hands of the proletariat and its political and ideological representatives. Marxist economics and Marxist socialism, that is, the theory of class struggle, but the foundation is Marxist philosophy. If this is not meditated on, we will not have a common language or a common way, we will be just arguing without clarifying things. After meditating on dialectical materialism, many sufferings will be avoided and many mistakes will be eliminated. ”

The issue of the Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels caused a stir in the world at that time. At the beginning of the Communist Manifesto, Marx wrote on this subject

: The pope and the czar, Maternich and Gizo, the French extremists, and the German police or all the authorities in Old Europe have come together to fight this scourge.

What is the opposition party that has not been denounced as a communist by the ruling party? What opposition party does not accuse more progressive opposition parties and even its own reactionary opponents of being disgusted with being a communist?

Two things are clear from the facts. Communism is now a power in all of Europe. Now the communists have to openly state their ideas, their aims, their efforts to the whole world and present their party manifesto instead of the myth of the house of communism. ”

Marx-Engels made a very important and incomparable contribution in the field of Marxism and Marxist philosophy by drafting the world-famous Communist Manifesto as well as by Marx Engels himself.

Marxism was articulated mainly through the joint efforts of both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. On this subject Lenin further writes, “Marxism is a systematic series of Marx’s ideas and his teachings. Mentioning the three constituents of Marxism in the nineteenth century, Marx promoted French socialism with three main ideologies, classical German philosophy, classical English political economics, and general French revolutionary teachings, born in the three most advanced countries of the world.

Marx made great contributions to the field of Marxism and Marxist philosophy by emphasizing that dialectical and historical materialism, the theory of surplus value, the role of force in history and class social struggle, and that scientific social communism are its basic tenets.

In addition, Karl Marx wrote the great work ‘Puji’ for 15 consecutive years. The great leader of the world proletariat, Karl Marx, came in contact with the young Hegelians in the shoot. In 1841, he received a doctorate in Democracy from the difference between the philosophy of nature and the philosophy of Epicurus.

In 1844, Firewach’s transition from revolutionary democracy to proletarian worldview through revolutionary materialism, and in his first review of Hegel’s philosophy of justice and the relation of the Jewish question, he clarified the role of the proletariat in society. Economic, Philosophical Manuscripts in 1844, An Essay on the Holy Family Fireworks with Engels in 1845, and Marx Ingles, a work entitled German Ideology in 1845. Contradicting the anti-Marxist philosophy of the poor, written by Pierre Prudho in 1847, he wrote important works such as the Communist Manifesto in 1848. He also wrote important works on the class struggle in France in 1848-1850, the unavoidable need for the overthrow of the bourgeois monarchy in 1850, Louis Bonaparte’s 18th Brumer, Critique of the Gotha Program in 1852, and the Paris Commune in 1875. In 1867, Marx created capital. The third volume of this great work was published by Engels in 1885, two years after Marx’s death in 1883.

Today marks the 135th anniversary of Marx’s death and the 123th anniversary of Engels’ death. And, 200 years have passed since the birth of Marx, and the proletarian working class around the world is calling for the 200th anniversary of Marx. The same is true today of Marx Engels, who gave the great idea of ​​”ending all forms of exploitation and oppression forever.”

Various intellectual and philosophical surveys of the world have considered Marx to be the millennial man of the period from 1000 to 2000.

Karl Marx, the great master and leader of the world proletariat and the theorist of scientific communism, breathed his last on this earth at 2:45 pm on March 14, 1883.

Due to scarcity and poverty, Marx’s children had to die prematurely. The youngest son, Guido, died in 1850, the youngest daughter, Francisca (aged 1), died in 1852, the eldest son, Edgar (aged 8), and the eldest daughter, Jenny (38), died in 1883. In this way, Marx has made an invaluable contribution to the world human community by giving Marxism and its philosophy dialectical materialism as the ideological weapon of liberation of the world proletariat with the help of Engels.

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